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Obesity

Obesity a condition in which there is too much body fat, being overweight is not the same as being obese. Obesity is classified when weight exceeds over 20% of the desired weight. Obese person especially with upper body or abdominal fat are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases including diabetes.

A high level of body fat has been shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes. Obesity increases ones chance of becoming hypertensive (high blood pressure) and stroke are twice likely to occur in obese people than in lean people. Coronary artery disease is more common, particularly in obese men. Person with abdominal obesity or upper-body obesity tend to deposit excess subcutaneous and visceral fat in the abdominal region and are at risk of developing chronic diseases compared to individuals with lower body fat.

Some characteristics changes on Body Composition during Obesity

 

Monitoring Body Composition

Monitoring changes in Body Composition is important as obesity not only involves an increase in body fat but also affects other body compartments. Obesity also effects the mineral and protein compartments of the body. In women increase weight has shown to have increase risk of breast cancer, uterus and cervix. Obesity may aggravate Osteoarthritis, and with extra weight on the hips, knees and back places undue strain on these joints.

Body composition is an important indicator which should be assessed regular to help with weight management

 


TECHNICAL PAPERS

Bray, G.A., & Gray, D.S. (1988b). Obesity. Part 1--Pathogenesis. Western Journal of Medicine, 149, 429-441.

Busetto, L., Baggio, M.B., Zurlo F., Carraro R., Digito, M., & Enzi G. (1992). Assessment of abdominal fat distribution in obese patients: Anthropometry versus computerized tomography. International Journal of Obesity, 16, 731-736.

Charney, E., Goodman, H.C., McBridge, M., Lyon, B., & Pratt, R. (1976). Childhood antecedents of adult obesity: Do chubby infants become obese adults? The New England Journal of Medicine, 295, 6-9.

Deurenberg, P., Leenan, R., van der Kooy, K., & Hautvast, J.G. (1989). In obese subjects the body tat percentage calculated with Siri’s formula is an overestimation. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 43, 569-575.

Ferland, M., Despres, J.P., Tremblay, A., Pinault, S., Nadeau, A., Moorjani, S., Lupien, P.J., Theriault, G., & Bouchard C. (1989). Assessment of adipose distribution by computed axial tomography in obese women: Association with body density and anthropometric measurements. British Journal of Nutrition, 61, 139-148.

Garrow, J.S., & Webster, J. (1985). Quetelet’s index (W/H2) as a measure of fatness. International Journal of Obesity. 9, 147-1 53.

Girandola RN, Contarsy SA, Wiswll RA, Artal R. The efficacy of height-weight measures to evaluate obesity in a college-age population [abstract]. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1991:23(4 Suppl):S75.

Gray DS, Bray GA, Gemayel N, Kaplan K. Effect of obesity on bioelectrical impedance Am J Clin Nutr 1989, 50 255-60

Mazariegos M, Kral JG, Wang J, Waki M, Heymsfield SB, Pierson RN Jr. Thornton JC. Yasumura S. Body composition and surgical treatment of obesity. Effects of weight loss on fluid distribution. Ann Sung 1992 Jul :216(1) :69-73.

Takahashi E, Yoshida K, Kondo T. [Early detection of obesity in male adults Using a combination of body index and bioelectrical impedance method]. Nippon Koshu Eisei Zasshi 1993 Oct;4O(1O):954-8. (Jpn).