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Bioelectrical impedance measurement

Maltron Body Composition Analysers have been developed using the finest and most
advanced circuitry of its kind, offering you the world’s first low cost British manufactured, high specification, hand-held system for the measurement of whole body composition.


The Maltron Analysers are rapid, non-invasive instruments for field and clinical settings
offering unique features never before available in instruments of this kind. Maltron Analysers deploy the scientific method of four electrodes (tetra-polar) which are applied to the hand, wrist, foot and ankle. A low-level electrical current is passed through the body and the impedance (z) or opposition to the flow of current is measured using the Maltron Body Composition Analyser.

The impedance value that is a function of Resistance when measured with Maltron Body Composition Analyser is then applied to pre-stored scientific equations for different age groups, ethnicity, gender and physical activity levels.

Fat Free body contains 73–75% water and therefore Fat Free Mass (FFM) can be predicted from Total Body Water (TBW).The larger Fat Free Mass and Total Body Water the less Resistance to current flow, compared to those with a smaller Fat Free Mass.

Total Body Water (TBW) of an individual can be estimated from impedance measurement obtained by Maltron Body Composition Analyser as the electrolytes in body water are much better conductors of electrical current than Fat Mass (FM).
Fat Mass has relatively low water and is therefore a poor conductor of electrical current with less Resistance (R).

This figure depicts how lying down method
of measurement provides equilibrium of water
compartments and indication of current flow


The current flows more easily when Total Body Water is larger and the opposite (Resistance) occurs when an individual has large Body Fat given that adipose tissue is a poor conductor of electrical current as it contains very little water. Impedance value measured by the Maltron Body Composition Analyser is an indicator of the changes taking place in one’s body composition. The Resistance value is of particular importance to professionals researching in Sports Medicine,Clinicians and Medics.

The changes in impedance value can help estimate one’s nutritional status, consecutive measurement over a period may show fluid loss provided no significant changes in body weight. Under normal hydration if impedance values are consecutively low this indicates a possible increase in lean mass. On the other hand if the values are higher under normal hydration, this is an indicator of larger Fat Mass.

Maltron Body Composition Analyser has the potential to assess regional body composition, particularly the soft tissue composition of the trunk. Additionally with the new Maltron Multi-frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analyser, it is possible to
estimate Extracellular water and Intracellular water compartments along with TBW. This enhances the clinical application of BIA to assess changes and shifts in the Intracellular and Extracellular water compartments associated with certain diseases.